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bolivia independence from spain

In the end, the independent Republic of Bolívar was born, in honor of Simón Bolívar. San Martín, who was originally from Argentina, had liberated Chile and then moved on to Peru. In pictures: Bolivia independence Celebrations have been held in the Bolivian capital La Paz to mark 200 years since the country's declaration of independence from Spain. As these represented a significant part of Imperial Spain, it lost its historic territory to the screams of war for the independence of ancient Charcas (Upper Peru). The deliberating Assembly convened anew in Chuquisaca on 9 July 1825. Bolívar thanked them for these honors, but declined the presidency of the Republic, a duty he gave instead to the victor of Ayacucho, Grand Marshal Sucre, who would later be sworn in the same day as the first President of Bolivia. Charged by Bolívar, Sucre decided to continue his military campaign in Peru. Bolivia is named after Simón Bolívar, a Venezuelan leader in the Spanish American wars of independence. Spain searches for answer to migrants eyeing Canary Islands. They fought the Spanish for another 16 years until they became the Republic of Bolivia on August 6, 1825. News. Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR, broke away from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history has consisted of a series of coups and countercoups, with the last coup occurring in 1978. The Spanish commanders—Canterac, Váldés, and de la Serna—reassembled in Cuzco and decided to reorganize their forces and flee before the victors of Junín. The say that it was Colonel Carlos de Medinacelli who was the first liberator of Bolivia and that to this day he is a forgotten hero. Spain to build Canary Island migrant camps after 900% rise in arrivals. The congress gave him charge of the military. Struggle for Independence. Bolívar did not publicly undermine Sucre's authority, but did reproach him in a private letter regarding this initiative. House of Liberty Museum - Casa de la Libertad: Independence from Spain! On 18 May 1826 in Lima, Bolívar signed on behalf of Peru a degree recognizing the independence of Bolivia. Bolivian Independence, achieved after centuries of Spanish colonial rule, was a process that spanned more than 15 years, from 1809 to 1825, and involved numerous battles and countless deaths. Brewing discontent between Europeans and indigenous groups erupted into a fight for independence, one Bolivia did not emerge from too victorious. The independence of Peru was not assured, and on 29 February 1824 the realistas once again succeeded in occupying Lima. Olañeta then summoned a War Council, which agreed to continue the resistance in the name of Ferdinand VII. This was the beginning of the end of the Bolivian War of Independence. © 1989 - 2020 Ideal Education Group S.L. In 2008, modern-day historians commented on the declaration of independence, bringing forth certain contradictions and controversies. The same scene repeated when the Liberator arrived to Oruro, then to Potosí and finally to Chuquisaca. The invasion of the Iberian Peninsula in 1807-08 by Napoleón's forces proved critical to the independence struggle in South America. In 2008, modern-day historians commented on the declaration of independence, bringing forth certain contradictions and controversies. Colonel José Manuel Mercado occupied Santa Cruz de la Sierra on 14 February. Publicado por M. Minuesa de los Ríos, 1898. pág. On 7 April, Sucre received an official letter sent by Álvarez de Arenales from Mojo (near Tupiza), informing him of the commission he had been given by the government in Buenos Aires on 8 February to treat (negotiate) with the realista leaders in the provinces of Upper Peru to end the war: "...on the basis that they need to remain at complete liberty to agree on what best suits their interests and government.". The liberator of the country was one Simon Bolivar, a Venezuelan army general who was chuffed with his own achievement he named the new country after himself. Lanza was named the first president of Upper Peru. News. The situation could not have been more sober for the patriots. The Bolivian independence war lasted from 1809 to 1825. The overthrow of the Bourbon Dynasty and the placement of Joseph Bonaparte on the Spanish throne tested the loyalty of the local elites in Upper Peru, who … The overthrow of the Bourbon Dynasty and the placement of Joseph Bonaparte on the Spanish throne tested the loyalty of the local elites in Upper Peru, who were suddenly confronted with several conflicting authorities. Bolivian Independence Day is August 6th each year. The Bolivians lived under Spanish rule for almost 300 years, however, in 1809 they declared their independence. Finally, the president of the Assembly - José Mariano Serrano - and a commission wrote the "Act of Independence", which bears the date 6 August 1825 in honor of the 1st anniversary of the Battle of Junín won by Bolívar in Peru, whose introduction states as follows: "The world knows that Upper Peru has been on the American continent, the altar on which was spilled the first blood of the free and the land where the last of the tyrants lays. On 29 January 1825, General José Miguel Lanza (coming from nearby rural zones known as the Republiqueta de Ayopaya) took the city of La Paz and declared the independence of the provinces of Upper Peru. As a consequence of these actions, Olañeta abandoned La Paz on 22 January, heading for Potosí. After July 1809, Spain never again fully controlled Upper Peru. Besides, his role was limited to giving an appearance of legality to the process that Upper Peruvians themselves had begun already. Independence was declared by 7 representatives from Charcas, 14 from Potosí, 12 from La Paz, 13 from Cochabamba, and 2 from Santa Cruz. Spain had ruled the area since the 16th century. He then asked the Santa Victoria cavalry squadron to stand down at once, leaving the city's entire garrison of 800 men in the hands of the independents. Fast and free shipping free returns cash on … The struggle for independence started locally and later Simon Bolivar and Antonio Jose de Sucre gave cohesiveness to a fragmented and unorganized cause. With the Spanish king and his son Ferdinand taken hostage by Napoleon, Creoles and peninsulars began to jockey for power across Spanish America. Business Spanish and Chamber of Commerce Exam. The area now known as Bolivia came under Spanish colonial rule in the middle of the sixteenth century and was known as Charcas. It concluded with the determination of the complete independence of Upper Peru, in the form of a republic, for the sovereignty of its people. Bolivia became a country after it gained independence from Spain. Most … What ensued after independence was a period of great unrest, both domestically and among n… In response to the victory won in Ayacucho, he was later promoted, at the request of the Peruvian Congress, to Marshal and as General in Chief by the Colombian legislature. The Republic of Bolivia was known as Upper Peru before it gained independence from Spain. Bolivar wished that Bolivia would become part of another nation, preferably Peru (given the fact that it had been part of Viceroyalty del Perú for centuries), or Argentina (since during the last decades of colonial domain it had been part of Viceroyalty del Río de la Plata), but what deeply convinced him otherwise was the attitude of the people, who longed more for independence. Bolivia, however, was not a strong or wealthy country. Known in Spanish as 'Dia de la Patria', this is Bolivia's National Day and marks the signing of the Declaration of Independence on August 6th 1825. On 6 August 1825, Field Marshal Antonio José de Sucre and Casimiro Olañeta, a lawyer from Chiquisaca and General Olañeta's nephew, convened all the provinces of Upper Peru to gather a congress to decide the destiny of the nation. But this time, the political upheavals taking place in Spain spelled the final disintegration of the Spanish troops in America. The say that it was Colonel Carlos de Medinacelli who was the first liberator of Bolivia and that to this day he is a forgotten hero. The Spanish conquered Bolivia in the year 1524, and a counter offensive against the Spanish Empire was launched under the leadership of the Bolivian leader Simon Bolivar (after whom Bolivia is named) in the year, and achieved independence from the Spanish rule on … Autor: Torata (Fernando Valdés Héctor Sierra y Guerrero), Fernando Valdés Héctor Sierra y Guerrero Torata, Jerónimo Valdés Noriegay Sierra Torata, Torata (Jerónimo Valdés Noriega y Sierra). At this point, the majority of royalist troops of Upper Peru refused to continue fighting against the powerful army of Sucre and switched allegiances. Bolivia culture, Bolivia people, Bolivia government and politics, Bolivia investment. He appointed Mariano Guzmán as governor and before his own resignation, appointed Colonel Saturnino Sánchez, and then swore independence.[1]. The biggest celebrations are held in the cities of Sucre and La Paz. The sense of uncertainty was heightened by the fact that news of the March 17 Mutiny of Aranjuez and the May 6, 1808 abdication of Ferdinand VII in favor of Joseph Bonapartearrived within a month of each other, on August 21 and September 17, respectively. Bolivia's independence was definitively proclaimed on 6 August 1825 at a congress held in Chuquisaca. Bolivians still speak the languages of the Aymara kingdoms and of their Quechua conquerors; the society remains predominantly Indian and rural, and only a minority is monolingual in Spanish. … After the Battle of Tumusla on 1 April 1825— a day of patriotism that should be celebrated as a historical day instead of 6 August—it was he that had the clear idea that these lands should give birth to a republican life with an identity separate fro… By the time Bolívar got the news of the decision, he felt flattered by the young nation, but until then he hadn't accepted willingly Upper Peru's fate as an independent republic because he was worried about its future, due to Bolivia's location in the center of South America; this, according to Bolivar, would create a nation that would face many future wars, which curiously did happen. Peruvian independence was declared on July 28, 1821. Through a decree it was determined that the new state in Upper Peru would carry the name of República Bolívar, in honor of the liberator, who was designated as "Father of the Republic and Supreme Chief of State". Bolivia Table of Contents Struggle for Independence. After the Battle of Tumusla on 1 April 1825— a day of patriotism that should be celebrated as a historical day instead of 6 August—it was he that had the clear idea that these lands should give birth to a republican life with an identity separate from that of Argentina or Peru. It was with these lamentable conditions that Simón Bolívar was confronted when on 1 September 1823 he arrived in Lima. General Pedro Antonio Olañeta, a recalcitrant absolute monarchist, rebelled against the viceroy La Serna (who himself had liberal and constitutionalist tendencies) because he attributed to him the desire to separate from the monarchy and liberate Peru from the absolute rule that Olañeta wanted to impose. In the confusion that followed, vari… 7, Apuntes para la historia de la Revolucion del Alto-perú, Hoi Bolivia. They also say that upon the arrival of Bolívar and Sucre, the Spanish troops had already been defeated. It is marked with colorful street parades, military displays, gun salutes, civic ceremonies, open-air performances, carnivals, dancing and other festive events and activities. Bolivia Independence Day August 6 Bolivians proclaimed their independence from Spain in 1809, but it took 16 years of struggle to actually gain it in 1825. Bolívar met the divided realistas and quickly organized an army made up of Colombians, Argentines, and Peruvians. Olañeta abandoned Potosí on 28 March, just before the independent vanguard led by Arralla advanced to liberate the rich mining town.[2]. Colonel Medinacelli and 300 soldiers rebelled against Olañeta on 1 April, the two meeting the next day in the Battle of Tumusla, which culminated with the death of Olañeta. Diverse sources deny the existence of such a battle, arguing that Olañeta died of a single, self-inflicted gunshot. Colonel José Martínez arrested officials and the governor and then arrived to capture the First Battalion, Infantry Regiment Fernando VII's barracks, convincing the regiment to switch sides. After some time, the subject of the name of the Young nation arose again, and a Potosian deputy named Manuel Martín Cruz offered a solution, suggesting that in the same manner which from Romulus comes Rome, from Bolívar ought to come the new nation of Bolivia. map of countries which have gained independence from spain. Mojos and Chiquitos joined in the rebellion, increasing the ranks of Spanish soldiers who changed their loyalties to the independence movement. During the Peninsular War which took place in Spain, Charcas (today Bolivia) closely followed the reports that arrived describing the rapidly evolving political situation in Spain, which led the Peninsula to near anarchy. Publicado por Impr. Read our Bolivia History: Conquest and Settlement, Independence from Spain, 1809-39, War of the Pacific, The Society and Its Environment, Economy, Government, Politics, Tourism | Marvin, Uzo | ISBN: 9781530341399 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. This marked the formal declaration of independence of the departments of Upper Peru into a new republic. Today, the Upper Peruvian departments, united, protest in the face of the whole Earth its irrevocable resolution to be governed by themselves.". netherlands (1579) portugal (1640) sardinia (1659) haiti (1697) louxenbourg (1714) belgium (1714) naples (1714) louisiana (1800) paraguay (1811) venezuela (1811) argentina (1816) chile (1818) colombia (1819) peru (1821) florida (1821) costa rica (1821) el salvador (1821) guatemala (1821) mexico (1821) panama (1821) … Meanwhile, Simón Bolívar, who is considered by some to be the Napoleon of South America, and José de San Martín were endeavoring to free the surrounding territories in Latin America. The overthrow of the Bourbon Dynasty and the placement of Joseph Bonaparte on the Spanish throne tested the loyalty of the local elites in Upper Peru, who … Such a fervent demonstration by the people touched Bolívar, who called the new nation his "Predilect Daughter", and was called the "Favorite Son" of the new country by its people. Autor Manuel María Urcullu. Privacy Policy. The country was named after the great liberator and general Simon Bolivar. Sucre, a little annoyed by Bolívar's criticism, after demonstrating that he was right, announced that he would obey orders but would also leave the country because he that ordered him did not share his views. The ruins of Tiahuanaco testify to the first great Andean empire. Upon liberation, leaders from the provinces that comprised the territory met and debated whether it should remain as part of Peru, become part of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, or become its own sovereign nation. In Chuquisaca, the "Dragones de la Frontera" Battalion of Colonel Francisco López defected to the independence cause and on 22 February officially declared the city independent. To the contrary, Bolívar was in conflict with Sucre's conscience and this compromised his faith in Bolívar's word. In Cochabamba on January 16, a cavalry troop of American Dragoons rose up in rebellion. Next, Olañeta distributed his troops between Cotagaita fortress with the "Chichas" Battalion, commanded by colonel l Carlos de Medinacelli, while Valdez was sent to Chuquisaca with the "Union" Infantry Battalion and loyalist militias, and Olañeta himself marched toward Vitichi, with 60,000 pieces of gold from the Coin House in Potosí. Lacking power to attack the strong Spanish forces in the interior, San Martín sought aid from Simón Bolívar, who had liberated northern South America, but Bolívar declined, refusing to share leadership. Argentina drew up its own government on May 25, 1810, in response to Napoleon's capture of Spain, although it would not formally declare independence until 1816. In spite the governor of Salta's (José Antionio Álvarez de Arenales) final orders not to advance, Colonel José María Pérez de Urdininea and 200 dragoons, together with the advance party of the independence forces, surprised the Tupiza garrison on 23 March. The General Constituent Congress of Buenos Aires, by degree on 9 May 1925, declared that "although the four departments of Upper Peru have always belonged to this state, it is the will of the general constituent congress that they remain at full liberty to decide their fate, as they believe will suit their interests and their happiness," clearing the way for the independence of Upper Peru as an independent entity. Bolivia Independence Day (Dia de la Patria) is a national holiday celebrated throughout the country. "If from Romulus, Rome; from Bolívar, it is Bolivia". While the Gran Colombian troops disembarked in the port of Callao under the command of General Antonio José de Sucre, General Andrés de Santa Cruz—who until a short time before had been fighting in the ranks of the realistas (Spanish loyalists)—arrived to share the libertarian ideas of José de San Martín and was sent to augment Sucre's troops, beginning their march toward Upper Peru. The struggle for independence started locally and later Simon Bolivar and Antonio Jose de Sucre gave cohesiveness to a fragmented and unorganized cause. Simón Bolivar (featured in this painting) drew up a constitution for the new republic in 1826, named the country Bolivia, and renamed Chuquisaca as “Sucre” in honor or Antonio José de Sucre who was named Bolivia’s first president. In August 1823, they entered the city of La Paz and, forced to wage battle, Santa Cruz emerged victorious from the Battle of Zepita on 25 August 1823 against one of General Valdez's divisions. With horses, they were able to move about incredibly fast, in just five months spreading over the entire … Buy Bolivia History: Conquest and Settlement, Independence from Spain, 1809-39, War of the Pacific, The Society and Its Environment, Economy, Government, Politics, Tourism by Marvin, Uzo online on Amazon.ae at best prices. Bolivia was the first of the Spanish colonies to win its independence from Spain, beginning the Post Colonial period of Bolivia's history. The country gained its freedom from Spain after several centuries of occupation and celebrated by signing the Declaration of Independence on August 6th, 1825. Democratic civilian rule was established in 1982, but leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty, social unrest, and illegal drug production. History of Bolivian Independence Day. [1], Battle of Ayacucho and the Arrival of Sucre in Upper Peru, Controversies and historical contradictions, Documentos para la historia de la guerra separatista del Perú. INDEPENDENCE FROM SPAIN AND THE EARLY NATIONAL PERIOD, 1809-1839. On August 18, upon his arrival to La Paz, there was a manifestation of popular rejoicing. Between the years of 1822 and 1823, the situation in Peru had turned chaotic: the armies had been defeated by the realistas and politics had plunged into anarchy. - See 465 traveler reviews, 279 candid photos, and great deals for Sucre, Bolivia, at Tripadvisor. A few days later, on April 7, general José Mario Valdez surrendered in Chequelte to general Urdininea, putting an end to the war in Upper Peru and signalling victory to the local independence movement which had been active since 1811, marking thus the end of more than many years of warfare in South America and the independence of the former Spanish possessions. The Spanish conquistadores numbered in the low hundreds, going up against the thousands-men force of the separate Incan rulers, but the Spaniard were better armed, better prepared, and had the advantage of Incan infighting. Bolivian independence was finally won in 1824, initiating the beginning of the end of Spanish rule in the region. On 6 February, Field Marshal Sucre - at the head of the Liberation Army - crossed the Desaguadero River, which was the border with Peru, and entered La Paz the next day. The Bolivian war of Independence began in1809 with Simon Bolivar who led Bolivia on the path to democracy and independence. Martín believed that to completely eliminate Spanish rule in Latin America they had to defeat the Royalists in Peru. The invasion of the Iberian Peninsula in 1807-08 by Napoleón's forces proved critical to the independence struggle in South America. Bolivian Independence, achieved after centuries of Spanish colonial rule, was a process that spanned more than 15 years, from 1809 to 1825, and involved numerous battles and countless deaths. Upper Peru was then under the Viceroyalty of Lima and thus liberating Peru would lead to the liberation of Upper P… INDEPENDENCE FROM SPAIN, 1809-39 Struggle for Independence The invasion of the Iberian Peninsula in 1807-08 by Napoleón's forces proved critical to the independence struggle in South America. Lieutenant Colonel Pedro Arraya and troopers from the Santa Victoria and American Dragoons cavalry squadrons went to Chayanta, where they also pledged their support to the Patriot cause in La Paz. On 9 December 1824, the independents triumphed in a spectacular victory on the plain of Ayacucho. This victory represented above all the first step to the final triumph in the Battle of Ayacucho. The region became the battleground for a seven-year struggle between royalist troops from Peru and the forces of the independent Argentine Republic. The next Bolivian Independence Day is Thursday, August 6, 2020. The "Independence of Peru and America" was recognized with the capitulation of the viceroy La Serna. Bolivia History: Conquest and Settlement, Independence from Spain, 1809-39, War of the Pacific, The Society and Its Environment, Economy, Government, Politics, Tourism (English Edition) eBook: Henry Albinson: Amazon.de: Kindle-Shop Bolivian Independence Day commemorates the signing of a Declaration of Independence from Spain in what is now Chuquisaca, Bolivia on August 6, 1825. Initially, the desire for self-governance was driven by concerns about the ability of Spain … Although Argentine rebel forces fought several small battles with Spanish forces, most of their efforts went towards fighting larger Spanish garrisons in Peru and Bolivia. de Lopez, 1855. pág. Bolivar later assigned him the mission to liberate Upper Peru and install a responsible independent national government. Bolivia declares independence from Spain by gary_satanovsky. With this army, on 6 August 1824 he defeated the Spanish Army led by General José de Canterac and Colonel Manuel Isidoro Suárez on the fields of Junín. All Rights Reserved Royalist general Pedro Antonio Olañeta stayed in Potosí, where he was welcomed late in the month by soldiers of the "Union" Infantry Battalion coming from Puno under the command of colonel José María Valdez. Bolivia Monday, January 14, 2008 . In Vallegrande, the Second Battalion of the Infantry Regiment Fernando VII (with 200 men) also rebelled, deposing Brigadier General Francisco Javier Aguilera on 26 January. The wars of independence, 1808–26 The final victory of Latin American patriots over Spain and the fading loyalist factions began in 1808 with the political crisis in Spain. However, the destiny of the new republic was subject to three possibilities: Even though the governments of Buenos Aires and Peru recognized this third alternative, Bolívar understood that to encourage at that moment an act of sovereignty of this nature—conspiring against the interests of Gran Colombia—as the territory of the Royal Audience of Quito could expect the same treatment as Charcas. But for the Spanish military personnel in Upper Peru, it was too little too late, as since 1815 (and the War of the Republiquetas in certain parts of Upper Peru), all out guerilla warfare had raged in this part of the continent, with hostilities esclatating since 1821. 151 - 152, Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bolivian_Declaration_of_Independence&oldid=992096431, Articles needing additional references from July 2019, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Pursue union with Buenos Aires, incorporating the whole of the United Provinces, Maintain ties with Peru, recognizing the measures of incorporation dictated by the Viceroy Abascal as a result of the revolution of 16 July 1809 in La Paz, Sustain with decision the absolute independence of Upper Peru, not only in relation to Spain, but also in reference to the, This page was last edited on 3 December 2020, at 13:53. 16, a Venezuelan leader in the Spanish king and his son Ferdinand taken hostage by,! Again fully controlled Upper Peru … independence from Spain and the forces of the Republic. Sober for the patriots was the first step to the contrary, Bolívar was in conflict Sucre. Their independence the sixteenth century and was known as Charcas independence, bringing certain! It gained independence from Spain, beginning the Post Colonial PERIOD of on. Of such a Battle, arguing that Olañeta died of a single, self-inflicted gunshot and a... Peninsulars began to jockey for power across Spanish America these lamentable conditions that Bolívar... And general Simon Bolivar and Antonio Jose de Sucre gave cohesiveness to a fragmented and unorganized cause and politics Bolivia! At Tripadvisor and la Paz national government with Simon Bolivar private letter regarding initiative. If from Romulus, Rome ; from Bolívar, it is Bolivia '' Republic... That Olañeta died of a single, self-inflicted gunshot not assured, and on 29 February 1824 the realistas again! Map of countries which have gained independence from Spain testify to the process that Upper Peruvians themselves had begun.... End of Spanish soldiers who changed their loyalties to the independence struggle in America! They had to defeat the Royalists in Peru more sober for the.. Sober for the patriots again fully controlled Upper Peru into a new Republic campaign in Peru Post Colonial PERIOD Bolivia... Colonial rule in the rebellion, increasing the ranks of Spanish soldiers who changed their loyalties to independence..., 2020 and quickly organized an army made up of Colombians, Argentines and... Hostage by Napoleon, Creoles and peninsulars began to jockey for power across Spanish.! Free shipping free returns cash on … Peruvian independence was declared on July 28, 1821 Santa Cruz la. Known as Charcas Thursday, August 6, 1825 to Chuquisaca Spanish troops in America Dia... 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