okurigana vs furigana
 Some manga make use of the furigana renditions of foreign words (especially obscure ones) as the intended reading of a term, and the more familiar kanji for the meaning of such a term. The specific types of effects vary: furigana could be used to visually reinforce complex ideas without having to use long expressions; to annotate strange, foreign, rarely seen text; to use more artistic or more explanatory spellings for regular words (see Kanji#Gikun); or simply for shorthand for base text abbreviation, thanks to the small type of furigana. Okurigana are kana that appear inline at normal size following kanji stems, typically to complete and to inflect adjectives and verbs. The hiragana in this case is referred to as furigana. The okurigana for group I verbs (五段動詞 godan dōshi, also known as u-verbs) usually begin with the final mora of the dictionary form of the verb. Okurigana for disambiguation are a partial gloss, and are required: for example, in 下さる, the stem is 下さ (and does not vary under inflection), and is pronounced くださ (kudasa) – thus 下 corresponds to the reading くだ (kuda), followed by さ (sa), which is written here kuda-sa. 0-1-0: Equal spaces are added, similarly to the 1-2-1 rule, in between the component characters of the shorter string, but not its start or end. Similarly, some nouns are derived from verbs, but written with different kanji, in which case no okurigana are used. This can sometimes cause ambiguity, as in the Yamanote Line (for a time called the Yamate Line) and the Agatsuma Line (which could be read as Azuma). The technique in which native scripts are used to inflect adjectives or verbs was invented by the Korean and later spread to Japan. These refer to prescribed spellings of words on the attachment to the Jōyō kanji list. The notification does not attempt to regulate the use of okurigana in science, technology, art, and other special fields or in writing of individuals. For example, the common family name Inoue (I-no-ue Well’s top, top of well) is generally written 井上, though if the particle were written it would be 井の上. To understand this grammatical distinction, compare the English present participle (verb form ending in -ing, indicating continuous aspect) and the gerund (noun form of the -ing verb form, which is a verbal noun) versus deverbal forms (which are irregular):[note 7]. Okurigana are kana that appear inline at normal size following kanji stems, typically to complete and to inflect adjectives and verbs. The 1981 Cabinet notification prescribes (, This page was last edited on 27 October 2020, at 20:09. both in the middle of the compound and at the end of the compound, as in 2-character compounds), either only the middle okurigana, or both the middle and the final okurigana may be omitted; omitting only the final okurigana but retaining the middle okurigana is rather unusual and somewhat questionable, though not unknown (marked with “?” below). small katakana and/or hiragana placed over or next to kanji in Japanese writing, to allow people who don't know the kanji to read it syllabically. (Edit: Especially being able to turn it on and off, because sometimes it could help you too … Okurigana are also used as phonetic complements to disambiguate kanji that have multiple readings, and consequently multiple meanings. Since kanji, especially the most common ones, can be used for words with many (usually similar) meanings — but different pronunciations — key okurigana placed after the kanji help the reader to know which meaning and reading were intended. ex.) Katakana is frequently used in scientific words, animal names, foods, and company names. Alternativními označeními furigany jsou yomigana (読み仮名) a rubi (ルビ). Analogous orthographic conventions find occasional use in English, which, being more familiar, help in understanding okurigana. In karaoke it is extremely common for furigana to be placed on the song lyrics. In modern usage, okurigana are almost invariably written with hiragana; katakana were also commonly used in the past. What does furigana mean? If okurigana occur after several characters (esp. Over the foreign text, smaller-sized Japanese words, in kana or kanji, corresponding to the meaning of the foreign words, effectively translate it in place. But Furigana means to support to read. In some cases, variations are permitted, when there is no danger of confusion; in other case, when there is danger of confusion, variations are not permitted. Verbs with Chinese roots are instead formed by appending, In this example, the non-standard okurigana. Unlike furigana, the use of okurigana is a mandatory part of the written language. Second, the furigana may contain virtually any text, even if it's not the reading of the kanji, mainly for artistic reasons. ny dakuten. I can tell easily enough when the word is a verb, and it ends in る or す or some such, but it's not always easy to remember whether sounds … What does furigana mean? Required or recommended (acceptable alternatives in parentheses) (付表の語1): While MEXT prescribes rules and permitted variations, in practice there is much variation – permitted or not – particularly in older texts (prior to guidelines) and online – note that these rules are not prescriptive for personal writings, but only in official documents and media. 一（いっ）歩（ぽ） ippo "step"; 一（ひと）目（め） hitome "sight; attention"), however, are generally tagged with furigana. Examples include nouns such as 気配り kikubari "care, consideration" versus 気配 kehai "indication, hint, sign" (note that the reading of 気 changes between ki and ke, despite it not having an okurigana of its own), and verbs, such as 流行る hayaru "be popular, be fashionable", versus 流行 ryūkō "fashion". As an example, the standard spelling of the word kuregata is 暮れ方, but it will sometimes be seen as 暮方. Since the okurigana are the kana at the end of a word showing the conjugation, I presume you don't mean that. The first 2 rules (1 & 2) address words that conjugate, the next 3 rules (3–5) address words that do not conjugate, and the last 2 rules (6 & 7) address compound words. Furigana 振仮名 indicate the correct pronunciation of Japanese kanji characters. Another example includes a common verb with different meanings based on the okurigana: Okurigana are not always sufficient to specify the reading. According to Ministry of Education guidelines, and the opinions of educators, the use of Japanese furigana should be avoided in English teaching due to the differences in pronunciation between English and Japanese. In the written style known as kanbun, which is the Japanese approximation of Classical Chinese, small marks called kunten are sometimes added as reading aids. Okurigana are kana that appear inline at normal size following kanji stems, typically to complete and to inflect adjectives and verbs. Ny okurigana; Ny Furigana; Afaka amoraina amin'ny alalan'ny hiragana ihany koa ny fomba fanoratana rehefa miverimberina matetika ilay teny ; ohatra, ny の (no) (malagasy : « ny » izao no teny anisan'ny miasa indrindra amin'ny fiteny japoney. Both individual kanji and multi-kanji words may have multiple readings, and okurigana are used in both cases. Okurigana are kana that appear inline at normal size following kanji stems, typically to complete and to inflect adjectives and verbs. Ambiguity may be introduced in inflection – even if okurigana specify the reading in the base (dictionary) form of a verb, the inflected form may obscure it. are usually not tagged with furigana. In works aimed at adult Japanese speakers, furigana may be used on a word written in uncommon kanji; in the mass media, they are generally used on words containing non-Jōyō kanji. One of the most complex examples of okurigana is the kanji 生, pronounced shō or sei in borrowed Chinese vocabulary, which stands for several native Japanese words as well: as well as the hybrid Chinese-Japanese words. OPTIONS2. Thanks. Okurigana are kana that appear inline at normal size following kanji stems, typically to complete and to inflect adjectives and verbs. Furigana may also be necessary in the rare case where names are transliterated into kanji from other languages (e.g.  Some authors may even use furigana that means the opposite of what the base text does to reinforce an effect, such as the complicated relationship between characters. In this use they may also help to disambiguate kanji with multiple readings; for example, 上がる (あがる, agaru) vs. 上る (のぼる, noboru). In other words, okurigana has a standard to follow. Exceptions occur when the adjective also has a related verbal form. For example, in a work of science fiction, some astronaut could use the word ふるさと, furusato, meaning "my hometown", when referring to planet Earth. In other cases (different verbs with similar meanings, but which are not strictly variants of each other), the kanji will have different readings, and the okurigana thus also indicate which reading to use.
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